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Next: Subjacency Violations: Multiple Wh-extraction Up: Sentential Complements of Verbs Previous: Bridge Verbs

Non-bridge Verbs

There is a class of verbs (such as the manner-of-speaking verbs) which do not allow extraction from their sentential complement. These are called non-bridge verbs. Thus, unlike the bridge verb say which allows extraction from its complement, as in (43), the non-bridge verb whisper does not allow this extraction, as in (44).
Who did the elephant say that the emu saw ?  (43)0(43
Who did the elephant whisper that the emu saw ? 

Therefore, non-bridge verbs such as whisper do not anchor auxiliary trees. Rather, they anchor initial trees with an S substitution site as their complement.

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