Locatives can modify NPs, VPs and Ss. They modify NPs only by right-adjoining post-positively, as in Example ((381)). Post-positive is also the more common position when a locative modifies either of the other categories. Locatives pre-modify VPs only when separated by balanced punctuation (commas or dashes). The trees locatives select when modifying NPs are shown in Figure 20.16.
When the locative phrase consists of only the anchoring locative adverb, as in Example ((382)), it uses the nxARB tree, shown in Figure 20.16, and its VP analogue, vxARB. In addition, these are the trees selected when the locative anchor is modified by an adverb expressing degree, as in Example (382). The degree adverb adjoins on to the anchor using the ARBarb tree, which is described in Section 20.5. Figure 20.17 shows an example of these trees in action.
One possible analysis of locative phrases with NPs might maintain that the NP is the head, with the locative adverb modifying the NP. This is initially attractive because of the similarity to time NPs, which also feature NPs that can modify clauses. This analysis seems insufficient, however, in light of the fact that virtually any NP can occur in locative phrases, as in example ((384)). Therefore, in the XTAG analysis the locative adverb anchors the locative phrase trees. A complete summary of all trees selected by locatives is contained in Table 20.3. 2620.9 adverbs select the locative trees.
|Degree Phrase Type|
|VP (pre, punct-separated)||punxARBpuvx||puARBpuvx|