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There is a class of verbs (such as the manner-of-speaking verbs) which do not
allow extraction from their sentential complement. These are called
non-bridge verbs. Thus, unlike the bridge verb say which allows
extraction from its complement, as in (43), the non-bridge verb whisper does not allow this extraction, as in (44).
- Who did the elephant say that the emu saw ?
Who did the elephant whisper that the emu saw ?
Therefore, non-bridge verbs such as whisper do not anchor auxiliary
trees. Rather, they anchor initial trees with an S substitution site as their