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In the XTAG grammar, arguments of a lexical item, including
subjects, appear in the elementary tree anchored by that lexical item. A
sentential argument appears as an S node in the appropriate position
within an elementary tree anchored by the lexical item that selects
it. This is the case for sentential complements of verbs, prepositions
and nouns and for sentential subjects. The distribution of
complementizers in English is intertwined with the distribution of
embedded sentences. A successful analysis of complementizers in
English must handle both the cooccurrence restrictions between
complementizers and various types of clauses, and the distribution of
the clauses themselves, in both subject and complement positions.
Sentential Subjects and Sentential Complements