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In the English XTAG grammar, VP and S-modifying adverbs anchor the auxiliary trees vxARB and ARBvx, ARBs, sARB,20.5 allowing pre and post modification of S's and VP's. Besides the VP and S-modifying adverbs, the grammar includes adverbs that modify other categories. Examples of adverbs modifying an adjective, an adverb, a PP, an NP, and a determiner are shown in ((359))-((366)). (See Sections 24.1.5 and 24.4.1 for discussion of the puARBpuvx and spuARB, which handle pre-verbal parenthetical adverbs and post-sentential comma-separated adverbs.)
(358)0(358
(359)
extremely good  (359)0(359
(360)
rather tall  (360)0(360
(361)
rich enough

(361)0(361
(362)
oddly enough  (362)0(362
(363)
very well

• Modifying a PP
(363)0(363
(364)
right through the wall

• Modifying a NP
(364)0(364
(365)
quite some time

• Modifying a determiner
(365)0(365
(366)
exactly five men

XTAG has separate trees for each of the modified categories and for pre and post modification where needed. The kind of treatment given to adverbs here is very much in line with the base-generation approach proposed by [#!Ernst84!#], which assumes all positions where an adverb can occur to be base-generated, and that the semantics of the adverb specifies a range of possible positions occupied by each adverb. While the relevant semantic features of the adverbs are not currently implemented, implementation of semantic features is scheduled for future work. The trees for adverb anchored modifiers are very similar in form to the adjective anchored modifier trees. Examples of two of the basic adverb modifier trees are shown in Figure 20.10.

 1.0in (a) (b)

{Adverb Trees for pre-modification of S: $\beta$ARBs (a) and post-modification of a VP: $\beta$vxARB (b)

Like the adjective anchored trees, these trees also have the NA constraint on the foot node to restrict the number of derivations produced for a sequence of adverbs. Features of the modified category are passed from the foot node to the root node, reflecting correctly that these types of properties are unaffected by the adjunction of an adverb. A summary of the categories modified and the position of adverbs is given in Table 20.2.

 Position with respect to item modified Category Modified Pre Post S ARBs sARB VP ARBvx,puARBpuvx vxARB A ARBa aARB PP ARBpx pxARB ADV ARBarb arbARB NP ARBnx Det ARBd

In the English XTAG grammar, no traces are posited for wh-adverbs, in-line with the base-generation approach ([#!Ernst84!#]) for various positions of adverbs. Since convincing arguments have been made against traces for adjuncts of other types (e.g. [#!Baltin!#]), and since the reasons for wanting traces do not seem to apply to adjuncts, we make the general assumption in our grammar that adjuncts do not leave traces. Sentence initial wh-adverbs select the same auxiliary tree used for other sentence initial adverbs (ARBs) with the feature <wh>=+. Under this treatment, the derived tree for the sentence How did you fall? is as in Figure (20.11), with no trace for the adverb.

{Derived tree for How did you fall?

{Complex adverb phrase modifier: $\beta$ARBarbs

There is one more adverb modifier tree in the grammar which is not included in Table 20.2. This tree, shown in Figure 20.12, has a complex adverb phrase and is used for wh+ two-adverb phrases that occur sentence initially, such as in sentence ((367)). Since how is the only wh+ adverb, it is the only adverb that can anchor this tree.

(366)0(366
(367)
how quickly did Srini fix the problem ?

• Focus Adverb modifying an NP
(367)0(367
(368)
only a member of our crazy family could pull off that kind of a stunt .  (368)0(368
(369)
even a flying saucer sighting would seem interesting in comparison
(370)
The report includes a proposal for at least a partial impasse in negotiations .

• Multi-word adverbs modifying cardinal determiners
(370)0(370
(371)
at most ten people came to the party .  (371)0(371
(372)
They gave monetary gifts of as little as five dollars .

 ARBnx PaPd PARBd (a) (b) (c)

{Selected Focus and Multi-word Adverb Modifier trees: $\beta$ARBnx, $\beta$PaPd and $\beta$PARBd

The grammar also includes auxiliary trees anchored by multi-word adverbs like a little, a bit, a mite, sort of, kind of, etc.. Multi-word adverbs like sort of and kind of can pre- modify almost any non-clausal category. The only strict constraint on their occurrence is that they can't modify nouns (in which case an adjectival interpretation would obtain)20.6. The category which they scope over can be directly determined from their position, except for when they occur sentence finally in which case they are assumed to modify VP's. The complete list of auxiliary trees anchored by these adverbs are as follows: NPax, NPpx, NPnx, NPvx, vxNP, NParb. Selected trees are shown in Figure 20.14, and some examples are given in ((373))-((376)).

 NPax NPvx vxNP (a) (b) (c)

{Selected Multi-word Adverb Modifier trees (for adverbs like sort of, kind of): $\beta$NPax, $\beta$NPvx, $\beta$vxNP.

(372)0(372
(373)
John is sort of [AP tired].

(373)0(373
(374)
John is sort of [PP to the right].

(374)0(374
(375)
John could have been sort of [VP eating the cake].

(375)0(375
(376)
John has been eating his cake sort of [ADV slowly].

There are some multi-word adverbs that are, however, not so free in their distribution. Adverbs like a little, a bit, a mite modify AP's in predicative constructions (sentences with the copula and small clauses, AP complements in sentences with raising verbs, and AP's when they are subcategorized for by certain verbs (e.g., John felt angry). They can also post-modify VP's and PP's, though not as freely as AP's20.7. Finally, they also function as downtoners for almost all adverbials20.8. Some examples are provided in ((377))-((380)).

(376)0(376
(377)
Mickey is a little [AP tired].

(377)0(377
(378)
The medicine [VP has eased John's pain] a little.

(378)0(378
(379)
John is a little [PP to the right].

(379)0(379
(380)

Following their behavior as described above, the auxiliary trees they anchor are DAax, DApx, vxDA, DAarb, DNax, DNpx, vxDN, DNarb. Selected trees are shown in Figure 20.15).

 vxDA DAax DNpx (a) (b) (c)

{Selected Multi-word Adverb Modifier trees (for adverbs like a little, a bit): $\beta$vxDA, $\beta$DAax, $\beta$DNpx.

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