Also, the by phrase associated with the raising passives can appear to the left or right of the infinitival complement, as in ((94)) and ((95)).
To handle these cases, the raising passives such as expect can also select the trees shown in figures 9.7(b) and 9.7(c). ECM verbs such as expect therefore select the ECM tree family and also, separately, the three trees in figure 9.7. Also, it has long been noted that passives of both full and bare infinitive ECM constructions are full infinitives, as in ((96)) and ((97)).
Under the TAG ECM analysis, this fact is easy to implement. The foot node of the ECM passive tree is simply set to have <mode>=inf, which prevents the derivation of ((98)). Therefore, while verbs selecting full and bare infinitives will differ in the <mode> specified for the active form when selecting the ECM tree family, they all use <mode>=inf for the passive tree. Selecting the passive tree separately from the ECM tree family for the active trees has the advantage of allowing verbs which only have the passive to not select the active trees. There are a number of such cases, as in ((99)), where the raising passive exists but not its active counterpart. For more discussion of this issue, see [#!kj85!#].
There are also some cases for which the raising passive complement does not take <mode>=inf, but rather a nom/prep complement, as in ((100)) and ((101)):
Such cases are handled by selecting the Vvx, Vbynxvx, and Vvxbynx trees with the appropriate <mode> on the foot node, instead of just inf. In some cases, as in ((102)), the corresponding active sentence sounds quite bad, and this is prohibited by not selecting the ECM family for the active cases with that mode. For example, believe selects the ECM family with <mode>=inf and the raising passive trees with <mode>=inf/nom/prep.