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Small Clauses

One way of describing small clauses is as predicative sentences without the copula. Since matrix clauses require tense, these clausal structures appear only as embedded sentences. They occur as complements of certain verbs, each of which may allow certain types of small clauses but not others, depending on its lexical idiosyncrasies.
I consider [Carl a jerk] .
I consider [Carl upset] .
?I consider [Carl in a foul mood] . 

I prefer [Carl in a foul mood] .
??I prefer [Carl upset] . 

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