Publications

 

Please visit the University of Pennsylvania's Scholarly Commons for additional downloads

2013

A. Shoulson, M. Kapadia and N. Badler. “Toward event-centric interactive narrative”, Intelligent Narrative Technologies 6, 2013.

P. Huang, M. Kapadia andN. Badler. “SPREAD: Sound Propagation and Perception for Autonomous Agents in Dynamic Environments”, ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation (SCA) 2013.

M. Kapadia, A. Porres F. Garcia, V. Reddy, N. Pelechano and N. Badler.“Multi-domain real-time planning in dynamic environments”,   ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation (SCA) 2013.

M. Kapadia, F. Garcia, C. Boatright and N. Badler. “Dynamic search on the GPU”,   IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2013.

A. Normoyle, F. Liu, M. Kapadia, N. Badler and S. Jorg. “The effect of posture and dynamics on the perception of emotion”, Symposium on Applied Perception, 2013.

M. Kapadia, A. Shoulson, F. Durupinar and N. Badler. “Authoring multi-actor behaviors in crowds with diverse personalities” Modeling, Simulation and Visual Analysis of Large Crowds, Springer-Verlag, 2013.

M. Kapadia and N. Badler. “Navigation and steering for autonomous virtual humans”,   WIREs Cognitive Science, Wiley, 2013.

M. Kapadia, I. Chiang, T. Thomas, N. Badler and J. Kider Jr.  “Efficient motion retrieval in large motion databases”,  ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, March 2013.

A. Normoyle, J. Badler, T. Fan, N. Badler, V. Cassol and S. Musse.“Evaluating perceived trust from procedurally animated gaze”, Motion in Games 2013.

M. Kapadia, K. Ninomiya, A. Shoulson, F. Garcia and N. Badler. “Constraint-aware navigation in dynamic environments”, Motion in Games 2013.

A. Shoulson, M. Gilbert, M. Kapadia and N. Badler. “An event-centric planning approach for dynamic real-time narrative”, Motion in Games 2013.

 

2012

M. Kapadia, A. Shoulson, F. Durupinar and N. Badler. "Authoring Diversity in Personality and Behavior for Multi-Actor Simulations." In Modeling, Simulation and Visual Analysis of Large Crowds. Springer-Verlag, 2012. (To appear)

C. Boatright, M. Kapadia, J. Shapira and N. Badler. "Pedestrian anomaly detection using context-sensitive crowd simulation." First International Workshop on Pattern Recognition and Crowd Analysis, 2012. (To appear)

M. Kapadia, A.Shoulson, C. Boatright, P. Huang, F. Durupinar andN. Badler. "What's Next? The New Era of Autonomous Virtual Humans." Fifth International Conference on Motion in Games, 2012

L. Sun, A. Shoulson, P. Huang, N. Nelson, W. Qin, A. Nenkova and N. Badler. "Animating synthetic dyadic conversations with variations based on context and agent attributes." Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds J., 23(1), pp. 17-32, 2012.

2011

S. Fiore, N. Badler, L. Boloni, M. Goodrich, A. Wu and J. Chen. "Human-robot teams collaborating socially, organizationally, and culturally." Proc. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Symposium, 2011.

A. Shoulson, D. Garcia and N. Badler. "Selecting agents for narrative roles." AIIDE Workshop on NPC, 2011.

A..Shoulson and N. Badler. "A framework for utilizing background agents for ambience and adaptive narrative." Fourth International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling (ICIDS2011).

A. Shoulson, F. Garcia, M. Jones, R. Mead and N. Badler. "Parameterizing behavior trees." Motion in Games (MIG), 2011.

D. Markowitz, J. Kider , A. Shoulson and N. Badler. "Intelligent camera control using behavior trees." Motion in Games (MIG), 2011.

Y. Liu, D. Liu, N. Badler and A. Malkawi. "Analysis of evacuation performance of merging points in stadiums based on crowd simulation." International Building Simulation Conference, 2011.

J. Kider, S. Raja and N. Badler.  Fruit senescence and decay simulation. Proc. Eurographics 2011.

C. Stocker, B. Sunshine-Hill, J. Drake, I. Perera, J. Kider and N. Badler. "CRAM it! A comparison of virtual, live-action and written training systems for preparing personnel to work in hazardous environments." Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality 2011.

D. Slonneger, M. Croop, J. Cytryn, J. T. Kider Jr., R. Rabbitz, E. Halpern and N. Badler. "Human model reaching, grasping, looking and sitting using smart objects." Proc. International Ergonomic Association – Digital Human Modeling, Lyon, France, 2011.

F. Durupinar, N. Pelechano, J. Allbeck, U. Gudukbay and N. Badler. "How the OCEAN personality model affects the perception of crowds.” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, May/June 2011.

2010

B. Sunshine-Hill and N. Badler. "Perceptually realistic behavior through alibi generation."  Proc. Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE) 2010.

C. Stocker, L. Sun, P. Huang, W. Qin, J. Allbeck, N. Badler. "Smart events and primed agents." Proc. Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA) 2010.

J. Allbeck and N. Badler. “Simulating Human Activities for Synthetic Inputs to Sensor Systems.” In B. Bhanu, C. Ravishankar, A. Roy-Chowdhury, D. Terzopoulos, and H. Aghajan (eds.), Distributed Video Sensor Networks, Springer, 2010.

P. Huang, J. Kang, J.Kider Jr., B. Sunshine-Hill,  J. McCaffrey, D. Velázquez Rios and N. Badler. “Real-time evacuation simulation in mine interior model of smoke and action.” Computer Animation and Social Agents (CASA) 2010.

2009

J. Kider, R. Fletcher, N. Yu, R. Holod, A. Chalmers and N. Badler. "Recreating early Islamic glass lamp lighting." Proc. International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (VAST), 2009.

2008

N. Pelechano, J. Allbeck, and N. Badler. Virtual Crowds, Methods, Simulation and Control. Synthesis Lectures on Computer Graphics and Animation, Morgan & Claypool, 2008.

E. Gu, S. P. Lee, J. Badler and N. Badler. "Eye movements, saccades, and multiparty conversations." In Data-Driven Facial Animation, Z. Deng and U. Neumann (eds). Springer-Verlag, London, 2008, pp. 79-97.

A. Bloomfield and N. Badler. "Virtual training via vibrotactile arrays." Presence 17(2), April 2008, pp.103-120.

F. Durupinar, J. Allbeck, N. Pelechano and N. Badler. "Creating crowd variation with the OCEAN personality model." Proceedings AAMAS Conference, 2008.

N. Pelechano, C. Stocker, J. Allbeck and N. Badler. "Being a part of the crowd: Toward validating VR crowds using presence." Proceedings AAMAS Conference, 2008.

M. Kuruc, C. Czyzewicz, V. Nair and N. Badler. "Direct shader sampling in painterly rendering for animation." 6th Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering Annecy, (Poster) France June 9-11, 2008.

N. Badler and J. Allbeck. "Future Needs and Developments in Support of Computer-based Human Models." In Handbook of Digital Human Modeling, V. Duffy, (ed). Taylor and Francis, 2008.

2007

 

B. Sunshine-Hill, J. Allbeck, N. Pelechano and N Badler. "Generating plausible individual agent movements from spatio-temporal occupancy data." Workshop on Massive Datasets, International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces, Nagoya, Japan, 2007.

N. Pelechano, J. Allbeck and N. Badler. "Controlling individual agents in high-density crowd simulation." ACM SIGGRAPH / Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation (SCA), August 3-4, San Diego, pp. 99-108, 2007

N. Pelechano, C. Stocker, J. Allbeck and N. Badler. “Feeling crowded? Exploring presence in virtual crowds.” Proc. of PRESENCE 2007, the 10th annual International Workshop on Presence, Barcelona, Spain, October 2007, pp 373-376.

E. Gu, J. Wang and N. Badler. "Generating Sequence of Eye Fixations using Decision-Theoretic Attention Model." WAPCV 2007, LNAI 4840, L. Paletta and E. Rome (eds.), pp. 277–292. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2007.

A. Bloomfield and N. Badler. "Collision awareness using vibrotactile arrays." In Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, March 10-14, pp. 163-170, 2007.

D. Bouchard and N. Badler. "Semantic segmentation of motion capture using Laban Movement Analysis."  In Proc. of Intelligent Virtual Agents, pp. 37-44, 2007.

2006

E. Gu, N. Badler. "Visual Attention and Eye Gaze during Multipartite Conversations with Distractions." Intelligent Virtual Agents, Marina del Rey, CA, 2006.

N. Pelechano and N. Badler. "Modeling crowd and trained leader behavior during building evacuation." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Nov. 2006, pp. 80-86.

Y. Zhang and N. Badler. "Synthesis of 3D faces using region-based morphing under intuitive control." Proc. Computer Animation and Social Agents (CASA); Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds (CAVW) Journal, 2006.

J. Allbeck and N. Badler. "Automated analysis of human factors requirements." SAE Digital Human Modeling Conf. Proceedings, 06DHM-49, Lyon, France, 2006.

K. R. Thorisson, H. Vilhjalmsson, C. Pelachaud, S. Kopp, N. Badler, W. L. Johnson, S. Marcella, and B. Krenn. "Representations for Multimodal Generation: A Workshop Report" AI Magazine 27(1), Spring 2006, p. 108.

2005

N. Pelechano, K. O'Brien, B. Silverman and N. Badler.  "Crowd simulation incorporating agent psychological models, roles and communication." Proc. First Int. Workshop on V-Crowds, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005.

E. Gu, J. Wang and N. Badler. "Generating sequence of eye fixations using decision-theoretic attention model." Workshop paper, IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2005.

E. Gu, C. Stocker and N. Badler. "Do you see what eyes see? Implementing inattentional blindness." Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA) 2005, LNCR 3661, Springer-Verlag, pp. 178-190.

L. Zhao, Y. Liu and N. Badler. "Applying empirical data on upper torso movement to real-time collision-free reach tasks." SAE Digital Human Modeling Conference, Iowa City , IA , 2005 (published as paper 2005-01-2685, SAE Transactions Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems).

N. Badler, J. Allbeck, S.-J. Lee, R. Rabbitz, T. Broderick and K. Mulkern. "New behavioral paradigms for virtual human models." SAE Digital Human Modeling Conference, Iowa City , IA , 2005 (published as paper 2005-01-2689, SAE Transactions Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems).

L. Zhao and N. Badler. "Acquiring and validating motion qualities from live limb gestures." Graphical Models 67(1), 2005, pp. 1-16.

2004

J. Allbeck and N. Badler. "Creating Embodied Agents with Cultural Context." In R. Trappl and S. Payr (Eds.), Agent Culture: Designing virtual characters for a multi-cultural world. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

2003

J. Allbeck and N. Badler. "Representing and Parameterizing Agent Behaviors." In Life-like Characters: Tools, Affective Functions and Applications. Helmut Prendinger and Mitsuru Ishizuka, Ed. Springer, Germany, 2003.

Y. Liu and N. Badler. "Real-time reach planning for animated characters using hardware acceleration." Computer Animation and Social Agents, IEEE Computer Society, New Brunswick, NJ, May 2003, pp. 86-93.

K. Ashida and N. Badler. "Feature preserving manifold mesh from an octree." Solid Modeling and Applications 2003, pp. 292-297.

A. Bloomfield, Y. Deng, P. Rondot, J. Wampler, D. Harth, M. McManus and N. Badler. "A taxonomy and comparison of haptic actions for disassembly tasks." IEEE Virtual Reality Conf., LA, CA, March 2003, pp. 225-231.

2002

N. Badler, J. Allbeck and R. Bindiganavale. "Describing human and group movements for interactive use by reactive virtual characters." Army Science Conference, 2002

N. Badler. "LiveActor: A virtual training environment with reactive embodied agents." Workshop on Intelligent Human Augmentation and Virtual Environments, Univerity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Oct. 2002.

N. Badler, C. Erignac and Y. Liu. "Virtual humans for validating maintenance procedures." Comm. of the ACM, July 2002, pp. 57-63.

J. Allbeck and N. Badler. "Toward representing agent behaviors modified by personality and emotion." Workshop on Embodied Conversational Agents -Let's specify and evaluate them! at AAMAS 2002, Bologna, Italy.

M. Byun and N. Badler. "FacEMOTE: Qualitative parametric modifiers for facial animations." Symposium on Computer Animation, San Antonio, TX, July 2002, pp. 65-71.

J. Gratch, J. Rickel, E. Andre, N. Badler, J. Cassell and E. Petajan. "Creating interactive virtual humans: Some assembly required." IEEE Intelligent Systems, 2002

S. Lee, J. Badler and N. Badler. "Eyes alive." ACM Transactions on Graphics - Special Issue, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2002, San Antonio, TX, pp. 637-644.
[NOTE formula corrections]

J. Allbeck, K. Kipper, C. Adams, W. Schuler, E. Zoubanova, N. Badler, M. Palmer and A. Joshi. "ACUMEN: Amplifying Control and Understanding of Multiple ENtities." Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, July 2002, Bologna, Italy, pp. 191-198.

N. Badler, J. Allbeck, L. Zhao and M. Byun. "Representing and parameterizing agent behaviors." Proc. Computer Animation, IEEE Computer Society, 2002, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 133-143.

H. Shin, J. Allbeck, D. M. Elliott and N. I. Badler. "Modeling a deformable human arm for constrained reach analysis." Proc. Digital Human Modeling Conference, Munich, Germany, June 18-20, 2002, VDI Berichte 1675, pp. 217-228, VDI-Gesellschaft Fahrzeugund Verkehrstechnik - Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag and SAE-International.

J. Allbeck and N. Badler. "Embodied Autonomous Agents." In Handbook of Virtual Environments, K. Stanney, ed., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002, pp. 313-332.

2001

N. Badler and J. Allbeck. "Towards behavioral consistency in animated agents." In Deformable Avatars, Kluwer Academic Publishers, N. Magnenat-Thalmann and D. Thalmann, eds., 2001, pp. 191-205.

K. Ashida, S.-J. Lee, J. Allbeck, H. Sun, N. Badler and D. Metaxas. "Pedestrians: Creating agent behaviors through statistical analysis of observation data." Proc. Computer Animation 2001.

L. Zhao, S. Lu, D. Metaxas and N. Badler. "Structures and styles: Motion acquisition from video." Third International Workshop on Intellgent Virtual Agents, Madrid, Spain, September 2001.

S. Huh, D. Metaxas and N. Badler. "Collision Resolutions in Cloth Simulation", Computer Animation, IEEE 2001, 122-127.

S. Chopra-Khullar and N. Badler. "Where to look? Automating attending behaviors of virtual human characters." Autonomous Agents and Multi-agent Systems 4(1/2), 2001, pp. 9-23.

J. Allbeck and N. Badler. "Consistent communication with control." Workshop on Non-Verbal and Verbal Communicative Acts to Achieve Contextual Embodied Agents, Autonomous Agents 2001.

N. Badler. "Virtual Beings." Comm. of the ACM, March 2001.

2000

D. Tolani, A. Goswami and N. Badler. "Real-time inverse kinematics techniques for anthropomorphic limbs." Graphical Models 62 (5), Sept. 2000, pp. 353-388.

L. Zhao, K. Kipper, W. Schuler, C. Vogler, N. Badler and M. Palmer. "A machine translation system from English to American Sign Language." Proc. Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 2000.

D. Chi, M. Costa, L. Zhao and N. Badler. "The EMOTE model for Effort and Shape." ACM SIGGRAPH '00, New Orleans, LA, July, 2000, pp. 173-182

N. Badler, M. Costa, L. Zhao and D. Chi. "To gesture or not to gesture: What is the question?" Proc. Computer Graphics International, Geneva, Switzerland, IEEE CS June, 2000, pp. 3-9.

J. Shi, N. Badler and M. Greenwald. "Joining a real-time simulation: parallel finite-state machines and hierarchical action level methods for mitigating lag time." Proc. 9th Conference on Computer Generated Forces, Orlando, FL, May, 2000.

T. Noma, L.Zhao and N. Badler. "Design of a virtual human presenter." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 20(4), July/August 2000, pp. 79-85.

R. Bindiganavale, W. Schuler, J. Allbeck, N. Badler, A. Joshi and M. Palmer. "Dynamically Altering Agent Behaviors Using Natural Language Instructions." Autonomous Agents 2000, June, 2000, pp. 293-300.

N. Badler. "Animation 2000++." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 20(1), Jan.-Feb. 2000, pp. 28-29.

D. Metaxas, D. Newman and N. Badler. "Noninvasive video motion capture." Proc. 13th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Santorini, Greece, May 20-26, 2000.

L. Zhao, M. Costa and N. Badler. "Interpreting movement manner." Proc. Computer Animation 2000 Conference, IEEE Computer Society, Philadelphia, May 3-5, 2000, pp. 112-120.

Y. Xu and N. Badler. "Algorithms for generating motion trajectories described by prepositions." Proc. Computer Animation 2000 Conference, IEEE Computer Society, Philadelphia, May 3-5, 2000, pp. 33-39.

N. Badler, R. Bindiganavale, J. Allbeck, W. Schuler, L. Zhao and M. Palmer. "Parameterized Action Representation for virtual human agents." In J. Cassell, J. Sullivan, S. Prevost and E. Churchill (eds.), Embodied Conversational Agents, MIT Press, 2000, pp. 256-284.

1999

N. Badler, M. Palmer and R. Bindiganavale. "Animation control for real-time virtual humans." Comm. of the ACM 42(8), August 1999, pp. 64-73.

N. Badler, R. Bindiganavale, J. Bourne, J. Allbeck, J. Shi and M. Palmer. "Real time virtual humans." International Conference on Digital Media Futures, Bradford, UK, April 1999.

N. Badler, D. Chi and S. Chopra."Virtual human animation based on movement observation and cognitive behavior models." Computer Animation Conf., Geneva, Switzerland, May 1999, pp. 128-137.

G. Huang, S. Huh, A. Goswami, D. Metaxas and N. Badler. "Dynamic Simulation for Zero-Gravity Activities." International Space Human Factors Workshop, Tokyo, Japan, June 1999.

S. Chopra-Khullar and N. Badler. "Where to look? Automating visual attending behaviors of virtual human characters." Autonomous Agents Conf., Seattle, WA, May 1999.

J. Shi, T. J. Smith, J. Granieri and N. Badler, "Smart avatars in JackMOO." Proc. Virtual Reality '99, Houston, TX, IEEE Computer Society, March 1999.

1998

N. Badler, R. Bindiganavale, J. Bourne, M. Palmer, J. Shi and W. Schuler. "A parameterized action representation for virtual human agents." Workshop on Embodied Conversational Characters, North Tahoe, CA, October 1998.

R. Bindiganavale and N. Badler."Motion abstraction and mapping with spatial constraints." Workshop on Motion Capture Technology, Geneva, Switzerland, November 1998.

J. Allbeck and N. Badler."Avatars a la Snow Crash." Proc. Computer Animation, Philadelphia, PA, June 1998.

N. Badler and R. Webster."SIGGRAPH VRML 3D Ph.D. Conetree." Computer Graphics 28(3), pp. 43-44, August 1998.

L. Zhao and N. Badler. "Gesticulation behaviors for virtual humans." Proc. Pacific Graphics, Singapore, pp. 161-168, 1998.

1997

D. Metaxas, E. Koh and N. Badler."Multi-level shape representation using global deformations and locally adaptive finite elements." International Journal of Computer Vision 25(1), pp. 49-61, 1997.

T.J. Smith, J. Shi, J. Granieri and N. Badler. "JackMOO, An integration of Jack and lambdaMOO." Pacific Graphics 1997.

N. Badler. "Real-time virtual humans." Proc. Pacific Graphics 1997.

D. Chi, E. Kokkevis, O. Ogunyemi, R. Bindiganavale, M. Hollick, J. Clarke, B. Webber and N. Badler. "Simulated casualties and medics for emergency training." In K.S. Morgan, H.M. Hoffman, D. Stredney, and S.J. Weghorst (eds.), Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1997, pp. 486-494.

N. Badler. "Virtual humans for animation, ergonomics, and simulation." IEEE Workshop on Non-Rigid and Articulated Motion. Puerto Rico, June 1997.

T. Noma and N. Badler. "A virtual human presenter" Animated Interface Agents Workshop, IJCAI-97, Japan.

P. Diefenbach and N. Badler. "Multi-pass pipeline rendering: Realism for dynamic environments" Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, 1997.

F. Azuola, N. Badler, P. Ho, S. Huh, E. Kokkevis and B. Ting. "Efforts in preparation for Jack validation." ARL Technical Report ARL-CR-418, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, US Army Research Laboratory. Available through DTIC.

1996

N. Badler, B. Webber, J. Clarke, D. Chi, M. Hollick, N. Foster, E. Kokkevis, O. Ogunyemi, D. Metaxas, J. Kaye and R. Bindiganavale. "MediSim: Simulated medical corpsmen and casualties for medical forces planning and training" National Forum on Military Telemedicine, IEEE, 1996, pp. 21-28

E. Kokkevis, D. Metaxas and N. Badler. "User-controlled physics-based animation for articulated figures" Computer Animation 1996.

J. Kaye, D. Metaxas, N. Badler, J.Clarke and B. Webber. "Linking anatomy and physiology in modeling respiratory mechanics" Medicine Meets Virtual Reality '96.

T. Trias, S. Chopra, B. Reich, M. Moore, N. Badler, B. Webber and C. Geib. "Decision networks for integrating the behaviors of virtual agents and avatars." IEEE VRAIS '96.

H. Ko and N. Badler. "Animating human locomotion in real-time using inverse dynamics, balance and comfort control.'' IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 16(2), pp. 50-59, March 1996.

C. Pelachaud, N. Badler and M. Steedman. "Generating facial expressions for speech." Cognitive Science 20(1), pp. 1-46, 1996.

D. Chi, J. Clarke, B. Webber and N. Badler. "Casualty modeling for real-time medical training." Presence 5(4), pp. 359-366, 1996.

B. Douville, L. Levison and N. Badler. "Task level object grasping for simulated agents."Presence 5(4), pp. 416-430, 1996.

D. Tolani and N. Badler. "Real time human arm inverse kinematics."Presence 5(4), pp. 393-401, 1996.

N. Badler, B. Webber, W. Becket, C. Geib, M. Moore, C. Pelachaud, B. Reich, and M. Stone. "Planning for animation.'' In N. M-Thalmann and D. Thalmann (eds.), Interactive Computer Animation, Prentice-Hall, 1996.

X. Zhao, D. Tolani, B-J. Ting and N. Badler. "Simulating human movements using optimal control." EUROGRAPHICS CAS'96, Seventh International Workshop on Computer Animation and Simulation, FUTUROSCOPE, Poitiers, France, 1996.

N. Badler. "Researchers design MediSim to train battlefield medics." Silicon Graphics World, June, 1996, pp. 30-31, .

1995

N. Badler, B. Webber, W. Becket, C. Geib, M. Moore, C. Pelachaud, B. Reich and M. Stone. "Planning and parallel transition networks: Animation's new frontiers." in S. Y. Shin and T. L. Kunii (eds.), Computer Graphics and Applications: Proc. Pacific Graphics '95, World Scientific Publishing, River Edge, NJ, 1995, pp. 101-117.

N. Badler, D. Metaxas, B. Webber and M. Steedman. "The Center for Human Modeling and Simulation." Presence 4(1), pp. 81-96, 1995.

B. Webber, N. Badler, B. Di Eugenio, C. Geib, L. Levison and M. Moore. "Instructions, intentions and expectations." Artificial Intelligence J. 73, pp. 253-269, 1995.

J. Granieri and N. Badler. "Simulating humans in VR." In R. Earnshaw, H. Jones, and J. Vince (eds.), Virtual Reality and its Applications, Academic Press, London, UK, 1995.

J. S. Nimeroff, E. Simoncelli, J. Dorsey and N. Badler. "Rendering spaces for architectural environments." Presence 4(3), pp. 286-296, 1995.

D. DeCarlo, J. Kaye, D. Metaxas, J. R. Clarke, B. Webber and N. Badler. "Integrating anatomy and physiology for behavior modeling." In K. Morgan, R. M. Satava, H. B. Sieburg, R. Mattheus and J. P. Christensen (eds.), Interactive Technology and the New Paradigm for Healthcare, IOS Press and Ohmsha, 1995, pp. 81-87.

B. Douville, X. Zhao and N. Badler. "An implementation of simulated human grasping for manufacturing tasks." SPIE Workshop on Modeling, Simulation, and Control Technologies for Manufacturing, Philadelphia, PA, September, 1995.

N. Badler, W. Becket and B. Webber. "Simulation and analysis of complex human tasks." SPIE Workshop on Modeling, Simulation, and Control Technologies for Manufacturing, Philadelphia, PA, September, 1995.

C. Pelachaud, J. Cassell, N. Badler, M. Steedman, S. Prevost and M. Stone. "Synthesizing cooperative conversation." Internationl Conference on Cooperative Multimodal Communication, Theory, and Applications CMS'95, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, May 1995.

E. Kokkevis, D. Metaxas and N. Badler. "Autonomous animation and control of four-legged animals." Graphics Interface 1995.

B. Reich, J. Granieri, W. Becket, J. Crabtree and N. Badler. "Behavioral programming for real-time interactive simulated human agents." 1995 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics.

J. P. Granieri, J. Crabtree and N. Badler. "Production and playback of human figure motion for visual simulation."ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation 5(3), July 1995, pp. 222-241.

J. Granieri, J. Crabtree and N. Badler. "Off-line production and real-time playback of human figure motion for 3D virtual environments." IEEE VRAIS 1995.

B. Webber and N. Badler. "Animation through reactions, transition nets and plans." International Workshop on Human Interface Technology, Aizu, Japan, September, 1995.

N. Badler and C. Pelachaud. "A workshop on standards for facial animation." Computer Graphics 29(2), pp. 66-67, May 1995.

N. Badler, B. Webber, D. Metaxas and J. Clarke. "Modeling humans from the outside in." Interactive Technology in Surgery and Medicine, Leeds, UK, 1995.

1994

J. Cassell, C. Pelachaud, N. Badler, M. Steedman, B. Achorn, W. Becket, B. Douville, S. Prevost and M. Stone. "Animated conversation: Rule-based generation of facial expression, gesture and spoken intonation for multiple conversational agents."ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, 1994.

J. Cassell, M. Steedman, N.I. Badler, C. Pelachaud, M. Stone, B. Douville, S. Prevost and B. Achorn. "Modeling the Interaction between Speech and Gesture." Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA, 1994.

J. Zhao and N. Badler. "Inverse kinematics positioning using nonlinear programming for highly articulated figures."ACM Transactions on Graphics 13(4), pp. 313-336, Oct. 1994.

X. Zhao and N. Badler. "Near real-time body awareness." Computer Aided Design 26(12), pp.861-868, Dec. 1994.

F. Azuola, N. Badler, P. Ho, I. Kakadiaris, D. Metaxas and B. Ting. "Building anthropometry-based virtual human models." Proc. IMAGE VII Conference, Tucson, AZ, June, 1994.

B. Reich, N. Badler, H. Ko and W. Becket. "Terrain reasoning for human locomotion." Computer Animation '94, Geneva, Switz., pp. 76-82, 1994.

R. Bindiganavale, J. Granieri, S. Wei, X. Zhao and N. Badler. "Posture interpolation with collision avoidance." Computer Animation '94, Geneva, Switz., pp. 13-20, 1994.

P. Diefenbach and N. Badler. "Pipeline rendering: Interactive refractions, reflections, and shadows." Displays 15(3), pp, 173-180, 1994.

D. Pratt, P. Barham, J. Locke, M. Zyda, B. Eastham, T. Moore, K. Biggers, R. Douglass, S. Jacobsen, M. Hollick, J.Granieri, H. Ko and N. Badler. "Insertion of an articulated human into a networked virtual environment." Proceedings of the 1994 AI, Simulation and Planning in High Autonomy Systems Conference, University of Florida, Gainesville, 7-9 December 1994.

M. Jung, N. Badler and T. Noma. "Animated human agents with motion planning capability for 3D-space postural goals."Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation 5(4), 1994. (Revision of Pacific Graphics '93 paper).

1993

N. I. Badler, C. B. Phillips and B. L. Webber. Simulating Humans: Computer Graphics, Animation, and Control. Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.

N. I. Badler, M. Hollick and J. Granieri. "Real-time control of a virtual human using minimal sensors."Presence 2(1), pp. 82-86, 1993.

W. Becket and N. I. Badler. "Integrated behavioral agent architecture." 3rd Conf. on Computer Generated Forces and Behavior Representation, Orlando, FL, pp. 57-68, March 1993.

B. Webber and N. Badler. "Instructions – Language and Behavior." Panel abstract, IJCAI, 1993.

N. Badler."Simulated humans, graphical behaviors, and animated agents." Concurrent Engineering: Tools and Technologies for Mechanical System Design, E. Haug (Ed.) NATO ASI Series, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993, pages 929-944. 

X. Zhao and N. Badler. "Near real-time Body awareness." First Bilkent Computer Graphics Conference, Ankara, Turkey, 1993.

M.Shao and N. Badler."Analysis and acceleration of progressive refinement radiosity method." Fourth Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, Paris, France, 1993.

M. Jung, Norman I. Badler and T. Noma."Collision-avoidance planning for task-lLevel human motion based on a qualitative mMotion model." Pacific Graphics Conference, 1993.

H. Ko and N. Badler. "Intermittent non-rhythmic human stepping and locomotion." Pacific Graphics Conference, 1993. 

B. Achorn and N. Badler. "A virtual training environment with simulated agents." Conference on Intelligent Computer-Aided Training and Virtual Environment Technology, 1993. 

H. Ko and N. Badler. "Straight line walking animation based on kinematic generalization that preserves the original characteristics." Proceedings of Graphics Interface, 1993. 

N. Badler and B. Webber. "Virtual interactive collaborators for simulation and training." 3rd Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavior Representation, Orlando, FL, March 1993.

 

1992

W. Ching and N. Badler. "Motion planning for redundant branching articulated figures with many degrees of freedom." Proc. IEEE/RSJ International Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 1044-1052, 1992.

M. Jung and N. Badler. "Human-like agents with posture planning ability." SPIE OE/Technology ‘92, Boston , MA , Nov. 1992.

M. Jung and N. Badler. "Posture planning for agent animation." (abstract and poster) First AI Planning Conference, College Park , MD , May 1992.

W. Ching and N. Badler. "Fast motion planning for anthropometric figures with many degrees of freedom." Proc.of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1052-1061, May 1992.

C. Pelachaud, N. Badler and M. Steedman. "Correlation of facial and vocal expressions for facial movement." Interface to Real and Virtual Worlds, Montpellier, France, March 1992.

C. Phillips, J. Granieri, and N. Badler. "Automatic viewing control for 3D direct manipulation." Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, Computer Graphics Special Issue, pp. 71-74, 1992.

S. Wei and N. Badler. "Human strength data display." Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation 3(1), 1992, pp. 13-22.

1991

C. Phillips and N. Badler. "Interactive behaviors for bipedal articulated figures." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 25(4), July 1991, pp. 359-362.

G. Monheit and N. Badler. "A kinematic model of the human spine and torso." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 11(2), March 1991, pp. 29-38.

M. R. Jung, J. K. Kalita, W. Ching and N. Badler. "Simulating human tasks using simple natural language instructions." Winter Simulation Conf. Proc., 1991.

J. Kalita and N. Badler. "Interpreting prepositions physically." AAAI-91, Anaheim , CA , July 1991.

O. Niazi and N. Badler."Converting BRL-CAD objects to surface representation and adding articulation and Jack ergonomic analysis." BRL-CAD Symposium ‘91, May 1991.

C. Pelachaud, N. Badler, and M. Steedman. "Linguistic issues in facial animation." Computer Animation ‘91, Geneva , Switzerland , June 1991.

N. Badler. "Human Modeling in Visualization." in New Trends in Animation and Visualization,   N. Magnenat-Thalmann and D. Thalmann (eds.), Wiley, 1991, pp. 209-228.

N. Badler. "Graphical behaviors and animated agents." Proc. US-Japan Workshop on Integrated Systems in Perceptually Grounded Environments, Las Cruces NM, December 1991.

B. Webber, N. Badler, B. DiEugenio, L. Levison and M. White. "Instructing animated agents." Proc. US-Japan Workshop on Integrated Systems in Perceptually Grounded Environments, Las Cruces NM, December 1991.

B. Webber and N. Badler. "Task communication through natural language and graphics." AI Magazine, 11(5), pp. 71-73, 1991.

1990

W. Becket and N. Badler. "Imperfection for realistic image synthesis." The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation 1, pp. 26-32,1990.

P. Lee, N. Badler, S. Wei and J. Zhao. "Strength guided motion." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 24(4), 1990, pp. 253-262.

C. Phillips, N. Badler and J. Zhao. "Interactive real-time articulated figure manipulation using multiple kinematic constraints." Computer Graphics 24(2), 1990, pp. 245-250.

J. Kalita and N. Badler. "Semantic analysis of action verbs based on physical primitives." Cognitive Science Society 12th Annual Conference, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1990, pp. 412-419.

T. Alameldin, N. Badler, M. Palis and S. Rajasekaran. "On the complexity of computing reachable workspaces for redundant manipulators." SPIE International Symposia on Applications in Optical Science and Engineering: OE/Boston'90 Symposium on Advances in Intelligent Systems; Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision IX: Algorithms and Complexity, 1990.

T. Alameldin, T. Sobh and N. Badler. "An adaptive and efficient system for computing the 3-D reachable workspace." IEEE International Conf. on Systems Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA, Aug. 1990, pp. 503-506.

B. Webber, M. Steedman and N. Badler. "Narrated animation: A case for generation." ACL Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Dawson, PA, June 1990.

N. Badler, B. Barsky and D. Zeltzer (Eds.). Making Them Move: Mechanics, Control, and Animation of Articulated Figures. Morgan-Kaufmann, Summer 1990.

N. Badler, B. Webber, J. Kalita and J. Esakov. "Animation from Instructions." In Making Them Move: Mechanics, Control, and Animation of Articulated Figures,” N. Badler, B. Barsky and D. Zeltzer (Eds.), Morgan-Kaufmann, 1990, pp. 51-93.

J. Esakov and N. Badler. "An Architecture for high-level human task animation control." In Knowledge Based Simulation: Methodology and Application, P. A. Fishwick and R. B. Modjeski (eds.), Springer-Verlag, 1990, pp. 162-199.

M. Steedman, B. Webber and N. Badler. "Task training through narrated animation." AAAI Workshop on Simulated Reality, 1990.

1989

N. Badler. "A representation for natural human movement." in Dance Technology I, J. Gray, (ed.), AAHPERD Publications, Reston, VA, 1989, pp. 23-44. [9 MB; scanned document]

G. Radack and N. Badler. "Local matching of surfaces using boundary-centered radial decomposition." Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing 45(3), 1989, pp. 380-396.

M. Grosso, R. Quach, E. Otani, J. Zhao, S. Wei. P.-H. Ho, J. Lu and N. I. Badler. "Anthropometry for Computer Graphics Human Figures." Technical Report MS-CIS-89-71, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania, 1989.

N. Badler. "Task-oriented animation of human figures." Applications of Human Performance Models to System Design, G. R. McMillan, D. Beevis, E. Salas, M. H. Strub, R. Sutton, and L. van Breda (Eds.), Defense Research Series, Volume 2, Plenum Press, New York, 1989.

N. Badler. "Artificial Intelligence, Natural Language, and Simulation for Human Animation." In State-of-the Art in Computer Animation, N. Magnenat-Thalmann and D. Thalmann (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, 1989, pp. 19-31.

N. Badler, P. Lee, C. Phillips and E. Otani. "The Jack interactive human model." Concurrent Engineering of Mechanical Systems, Vol. 1, First Annual Symposium on Mechanical Design in a Concurrent Engineering Environment, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, October 1989, pp. 179-198.   (Selected for republication as a “Best Paper” in the 16th Design Automation Conference, Detroit, MI, September 1990.

N. Badler. "Designing, evaluating, and monitoring human activities." Space Human Factors Workshop, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, September 1989.

J. Esakov, N. Badler and M. Jung. "An investigation of language input and performance timing for task animation." Graphics Interface ‘89, Morgan-Kaufmann, Palo Alto, CA, June 1989, pp. 86-93.

M. Grosso, R. Quach and N. Badler. "Anthropometry for computer animated human figures." In State-of-the Art in Computer Animation, N. Magnenat-Thalmann and D. Thalmann (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, 1989, pp. 83-96.

J. Esakov, M. Jung and N. Badler. "Human task animation from performance models and natural language input." Graphics Technology in Space Applications, NASA JSC Conference Publication 3045, April 1989.

1988

P. Pu and N. Badler. "Design knowledge capture and causal simulation." In Intelligent CAD, H. Yoshikawa (ed.), IFIP, 1988.

P. Pu and N. Badler. "The Implementation of a design knowledge capturing system." Second IFIP Working Group 5.2 Workshop on Intelligent CAD, Cambridge, England, September 1988.

C. Phillips and N. Badler. " Jack: A toolkit for manipulating articulated figures." ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on User Interface Software, Banff, Canada, October 1988, pp. 221-229.

P. Pu and N. Badler. "Design knowledge capture for device behavior." Third International Conference on Applications of AI in Engineering, Stanford, CA, August 1988, pp. 37-56.

R. K. Stodola, W. P. Wood, Jr., F. J. Manion, H. Berman and N. Badler. "Anatomy of a molecular graphics program: DOCK." In Crystallographic Computing 4 , N. W. Isaacs and M. R. Taylor (Eds.), Oxford Science, 1988.

1987

N. Badler, K. Manoochehri and G. Walters. "Articulated figure positioning by multiple constraints." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, June 1987, pp. 28-38.

1986

N. Badler, K. Manoochehri and D. Baraff. "Articulated figure positioning by multiple constraints and 6-axis input." Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics, ACM SIGGRAPH, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, Oct. 1986, pp. 151-169.

N. Badler and J. Tsotsos (Eds.). Motion: Representation and Perception. Elsevier Science Publishers, North Holland, 1986.

N. Badler. "Overview of raster graphics hardware,” “Scan conversion,” and “Design of a human movement representation incorporating dynamics." In Advances in Computer Graphics I , G. Enderle, M. Grave, and F. Lillehagen (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986.

T. Granor and N. Badler. "Incorporating application semantics in a User Interface Management System." Workshop on Interactive Systems Design, Seattle, WA, Nov. 1986.

N. Badler. "Animation of human figures: Perspectives and directions." (Extended Abstract) Proc. Graphics Interface Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 1986, pp. 115-120.

N. Badler and J. Gangel. "Natural Language input for human task animation." Second Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems, Instrument Society of America, Houston, TX, June 1986, pp.137-148.

1985

T. Granor and N. Badler. "The window controller." ACM Transactions on Graphics 3(4), October 1985, pp. 312-315.

N. Badler, Jon Korein, James Korein, G. Radack and L. Brotman. "Positioning and animating human figures in a task-oriented environment." The Visual Computer: The International Journal of Computer Graphics 1(4), 1985, pp. 212-220.

S. Steketee and N. Badler. "Parametric keyframe interpolation incorporating kinetic adjustment and phrasing control." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 19(3), July 1985, pp. 255-262.

T. Granor and N. Badler. "GUIDE: Graphical User Interface Development Environment." IEEE Trends and Applications Conference, Washington, DC, 1985, pp. 37-41.

P. Fishwick and N. Badler. "Hierarchical reasoning: simulating complex processes over multiple levels of abstraction." First Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems, Instrument Society of America, Houston, TX, 1985, pp. 73-80.

N. Badler, Jon Korein, James Korein, G. Radack and L. Brotman. "TEMPUS: A system for the design and simulation of human figures in a task-oriented environment." First Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems, Instrument Society of America, Houston, TX, 1985, pp. 251-257.

1984

L. Brotman and N. Badler. "Generating soft shadows with a depth-buffer algorithm." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 4(10), Oct. 1984, pp. 5-12.

N. Badler and   B. Webber. "TEMPUS: A system for the design and simulation of mobile agents in a workstation and task environment." Applications du Graphisme par Ordinateur, G. Laporte and N. Magnenat-Thalmann, Gaetan Morin Editeur, Chicoutimi, Quebec, 1984.

N. Badler. "Modeling and animating the human form." (Abstract) Proc. Graphics Interface Conference, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 1984.

N. Badler and J. Tsotsos. "Motion Graphics, Description and Control."  Workshop summary, Computer Graphics 18(1), January 1984.   Reprinted in Motion: Representation and Perception , N. Badler and J. Tsotsos (eds.), Elsevier Science Publishers, North Holland, 1986.

N. Badler and I. Carlbom. "The Computer Graphics scene in America." Eurographics 1984, Copenhagen, Denmark.

1983

J. Korein and N. Badler. "Temporal anti-aliasing in computer generated animation." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 17(3), July 1983, pp. 377-388.

N. Badler, B. Webber, J. Korein and J. Korein: "TEMPUS: A system for the design and simulation of mobile agents in a workstation and task environment."   Proc. Trends and Applications Conference, Washington, DC, 1983, pp. 263-269.

1982

J. Korein and N. Badler. "Techniques for goal-directed movement." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Nov. 1982, pp. 71-81.

N. Badler , F. Stluka, B. Saunders and P. Slayton. "Overview of the University of Pennsylvania CORE system." Computer Graphics 16(2), June 1982, pp. 177-186.

G. Radack and N. Badler. "Jigsaw puzzle matching using a boundary-centered polar encoding." Computer Graphics and Image Processing, May 1982, pp. 1-17.

N. Badler and M. Morris. "Modelling flexible articulated objects." Proc. Computer Graphics 82, ONLINE Conferences, Northwood, UK, 1982, pp. 305-314.

1981

S. Platt and N. Badler. "Animating facial expressions." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 15(3), Aug. 1981, pp. 245-252.

N. Badler: "Understanding human movement: Synthesis and analysis." Proc. 15 th Annual Conf. on Information Sciences and Systems, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD, 1981, pp. 297-300.

S. Platt and N. Badler. "Animating facial expressions." Proc. 15th Annual Conf. on Information Sciences and Systems, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD, 1981, pp. 221-225.

N. Badler and R. Ellis. "State of the Art in Computer Graphics: A SIGGRAPH Perspective." Proc. Eurographics ‘81 Conf.

1980

J. O'Rourke and N. Badler. "Model-based image analysis of human motion using constraint propagation." IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 2(6), Nov. 1980, pp. 522-536.

N. Badler, J. O'Rourke and B. Kaufman. "Special problems in human movement simulation." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 14(3), Summer 1980, pp. 189-197.

K. McKeown and N. Badler. "Creating polyhedral stellations." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 14(3), Summer 1980, pp. 19-24.

G. Radack and N. Badler. "A new boundary encoding with applications to jigsaw puzzles." Proc. Fifth International Joint Conf. on Pattern Recognition, Miami, FL, Dec. 1980.

N. Badler, J. O'Rourke, S. Platt and M. Morris. "Human movement understanding: A variety of perspectives." Proc. First Annual National Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, Stanford, CA, August 1980, pp. 53-55.

N. Badler and C. Werner. "Interpolating pixel values from arbitrary initial seed points." Proc. Asilomar Workshop on Picture Data Description and Management, Monterey, CA, 1980, pp. 177-183.

S. Gnanamgari, H. Morgan, N. Badler and B. Webber. "Providing automatic graphic displays through defaults." Proc. CSCSI Conf., Victoria, BC, Canada, Summer 1980.

1979

J. Mitroo, N. Herman and N. Badler. "Movies from music." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 13(2), Aug. 1979, pp. 218-225.

N. Badler , J. O'Rourke and H. Toltzis. "A spherical representation of a human body for visualizing movement." IEEE Proceedings 67(10), Oct. 1979, pp. 1397-1403.

J. O'Rourke and N. Badler. "Decomposition of three-dimensional objects into spheres." IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 1(3), July 1979, pp. 295-305.

N. Badler and S. Smoliar. "Digital representations of human movement." ACM Computing Surveys 11(1), March 1979, pp. 19-38.

C. Dane and N. Badler. "The medial axis of a coarse binary image using boundary smoothing." Proc. PRIP Conf., Chicago, IL, August 1979, pp.286-291.

1978

N. Badler and R. Bajcsy. "Three-dimensional representations for computer graphics and computer vision." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 12(3), Aug. 1978.

N. Badler and V. Badler. "Interaction with a color computer graphics display system for archaeological sites." ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 12(3), Aug. 1978.   Revised, expanded version appears as cover article in Computer Graphics World 1(11), 1978, pp. 12-18.

L. Weber, S. Smoliar, and N. Badler. "An architecture for the simulation of human movement." Proc. ACM National Conf., Washington, DC, Dec. 1978, pp. 737-745.

1977

N. Badler. "Disk generators for a raster display device." Computer Graphics and Image Processing 6, 1977, pp. 589-593.

N. Badler and L. Miller. "Towards a formal model for pseudo-color selection." Proc. PRIP Conf., Troy, NY, 1977, pp. 261-265.

1976

N. Badler. "Conceptual descriptions of physical activities." American Journal of Computational Linguistics, Microfiche 35, 1976, pp. 70-83.

N. Badler. "A concept model for the description of image sequences." Proc. Milwaukee Symposium on Automatic Computation and Control, Milwaukee, WI, March 1976, pp. 377-381.

1975

N. Badler. "Temporal Scene Analysis: Conceptual Descriptions of Object Movements." Ph.D. Dissertation, Computer Science, University of Toronto, 1975. [20MB; scanned document]

1974

N. Badler. "Three-dimensional motion from two-dimensional picture sequences." Proc. Second International Joint Conf. on Pattern Recognition, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 1974, pp. 157-161.

1973

J. Mylopoulos, N. Badler, L. Melli and N. Roussopoulos. "An introduction to 1.pak, A programming language for artificial intelligence applications." Proc. Third International Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, Stanford, CA, August 1973, pp. 691-695.